►Innocent Fast Food Restaurant快餐无辜

A study by academics from the University ofCalifornia and Northwestern University claimed that "the causal link between the consumption ofrestaurant foods and obesity is minimal at best."


It argued that a tax on high-calorie food, asproposed by many health campaigners in the US andBritain, may therefore not be an effective way for governments to tackle the problem.


The study analyzed data compiled by the US Department of Agriculture on calorie intakearound the country. It found that people living closer to restaurants were not significantly morelikely to be obese than people living further away, indicating that easy access to restaurants hadlittle effect.


It also showed that while restaurant meals typically held more calories than home-producedfood, many customers often offset this by eating less throughout the rest of the day.


Obese people who ate at restaurants, the study indicated,"also eat more when they eat athome."


The US government estimates that about one in three Americans, or 100 million in total, areobese. Last month it was predicted that 75 percent of Americans would be overweight in 2020.

美国政府估计每一百个美国人中间就有一个肥胖者。上个月的一项调查预估到2020 年75%的美国人都会超重。

The problem is thought to cost Americans between $150 billion and $170 billion in annualmedical costs.

肥胖问题每年都会花费美国政府1500 亿到1700 亿美元的医疗费用。

The study's authors, Michael Anderson and David Matsa, wrote: "While taxing restaurant mealsmight cause bese consumers to change where they eat, our results suggest that a tax wouldbe unlikely to affect their underlying tendency to overeat."




►Smart Phone Application Tracks Mental Health智能手机应用程序跟踪心理健康

Military service is notoriously rough on a service member's mental health. According to some estimates, 30 percent of service members develop some type of mental health issue within four months of returning home after deployment.


The military is spending more money than ever to address mental health issues within the ranks, and their latest attempt is a smart phone application called the T2 MoodTracker application, which helps service members keep track of their mental health after deployments.

部队现在正花大代价来解决军人们的心理健康问题。他们最新推出了一个叫做T2 情绪追踪器的智能手机应用软件,这个软件可以帮助退伍士兵时刻关注自己的心理健康问题。

The app works like a high-tech diary, allowing users to express emotions and behaviors that result from therapy, medication, daily experiences or changes happening at work or in the home.


The smart phone app isn 't supposed to be a pocket therapist, though. It serves more as an extremely accurate and timely record of a service member's mental health.


Perry Bosmajian is a psychologist with the National Center for TeleHealth and Technology, where this smart phone app was created. He says this smart phone app will yield much more accurate results on the psychological conditions of service members who have returned home.


"Therapists and physicians often have to rely on patient recall when trying to gather information about symptoms over the previous weeks or months," Bosmajian said. "Research has shown that information collected after the fact, especially about mood, tends to be inaccurate. The best record of an experience is when it's recorded at the time and place it happens."


The app specifically tracks anxiety, depression, general well-being, life stress, post traumatic stress and brain injury. The daily expressions add up over time to produce a trend that can be observed by physicians and therapists.


The app has been downloaded more than 5,000 times since it became available on the Android Market a year ago. The app should be available for iPhone users some time next year.

这款软件一年前在Android 市场上发布以来,已经被下载了5000 次。明年也许就可以在iPhone 上使用了。

►Blood Type O May Be Barrier to Having A Baby研究发现:"O型血"女性更不容易受孕

A study suggests that a woman's blood group could influence her chances of getting pregnant.


Researchers who tested a group of women seeking fertility treatment found those with the blood type O appeared to have a lower egg count and poorer egg quality than others. By contrast those with blood type A seemed to have more and better quality eggs.


The findings could lead to women with type O blood being advised to try for a baby earlier, but experts said more research was needed before such a step was taken.


The lead author, Dr Edward Nejat, of the department of obstetrics and gynaecology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, said his findings were based on women having fertility treatment at the Yale University and the Montefiore Institute in New York.


The study of 560 women, whose average age was just under 35, found that those with blood type O were more likely to have higher levels of "follicle stimulating hormone" (FSH) than those with type A.


Fertility experts regard a high FSH level as a key indicator of having a low egg count. FSH is produced by the body to stimulate the follicles in the ovaries that produce eggs.


As a woman's ovaries run out of eggs in her 30s and 40s, production therefore has to be stepped up to encourage more eggs. The presence of high levels of FSH indicates lower numbers of eggs.


The study found that women with blood type O were twice as likely to have an FSH level above 10 as those in any other blood group.


People with blood group A carry the A antigen, a protein on the cell surface, that is absent in people with O type.


►Background Music? It's Bad!背景音乐很糟糕

Studying for an exam while listening to music is not smart, because background music can impair your ability to perform memory tasks, new research has found.


Study participants were asked to recall a list of eight consonants in the order they were presented. They did this while in five different sound environments: quiet surroundings; music they liked; music they disliked; changing state (a sequence of random digits); and steady state (a sequence of steady digits such as "3, 3, 3, 3").

参与调查者听到8 个辅音字母,他们必须按照播放顺序进行复述。他们听的时候,分别处在5 种不同的背景声音中:安静环境、喜欢的背景音乐、不喜欢的背景音乐、数字不断变化的响声,数字不变的响声(例如:3,3,3,3)。

The participants' recall ability was poorest when listening to music, regardless of whether they liked or disliked it, and in changing-state conditions. The most accurate recall occurred when participants performed the task in steady-state environments, according to the study published online in the journal Applied Cognitive Psychology.


" The poorer performance of the music and changing-state sounds are due to the acoustical variation within those environments. This impairs the ability to recall the order of items, via rehearsal, within the presented list, " explained lead researcher Nick Perham, a lecturer in the School of Psychology at the University of Wales Institute in Cardiff, in a news release from the journal's publisher.


"Mental arithmetic also requires the ability to retain order information in the short-term via rehearsal, and may be similarly affected by their performance in the presence of changing-state, background environments," he added.


When performing a challenging mental task, do it in silence, Perham recommended.


►Real Books Quicker to Read than E-books传统书籍的阅读速度胜过电子书

People can read traditional printed books a good bit faster than e-books on tablet computers, a new study has found.


The study tested peoples' pace of reading on two populare-reader tablets-Apple's iPad and Amazon's Kindle 2-as well as a standard PC monitor and a regular book.

研究将人们在两种热门的电子阅读器--苹果的iPad 和亚马逊的Kindle2--上阅读的速度进行了对比,还和在普通电脑屏幕上看书的速度以及看传统纸质书的速度进行了对比。

The 24 study participants read short stories by the author Ernest Hemingway, chosen "because his work is pleasant and engaging to read, and yet not so complicated that it would be above the heads of users," said Jakob Nielsen, who led the study for the Nielsen Norman Group.

24 名参与者应邀参加实验,实验内容是看海明威的短篇小说。该研究是尼尔森·诺曼咨询集团发起的,研究的负责人雅各布·尼尔森说,选择海明威的小说是因为"他的作品引人入胜,而又不晦涩难懂"。

On average, it took people more than 17 minutes to read the selected tales, which Nielsen wrote is "enough to get them immersed in the story" and is also "representative for many other formats of interest, such as whitepapers and reports."

参与者平均用了超过17 分钟来看完选出的故事,17 分钟的时间在尼尔森看来足以让他们"沉浸到故事内容当中"。

To make sure people did not just skim the stories, the participants were given a reading comprehension tests afterward.


Overall, the study revealed that people read text 6.2 percent slower on an iPad than on the printed page. With the Kindle, reading was 10.7 percent slower.

总的来看,在iPad 上看书比看纸质书速度要慢6.2%,而用Kindle2 的速度则要慢上10.7%。

Nielsen noted that this difference between the e-readers was not statistically significant, however, so in the end the only fair statement is that "tablets still haven't beaten the printed book," Nielsen wrote.


Study participants also rated each reading implement from one to seven-with seven being the highest-and provided feedback as well.

参与者还被要求给每种阅读工具打分--范围为1 分到7 分--并给出反馈意见。

The default iBook app on the iPad used for the test took top prize, but just barely, scoring a 5.8. Amazon's Kindle, the close runner-up, ranked 5.7 and the regular book came in third by a hair at 5.6.

iPad 上使用的iBook 程序得分最高,不过也只得到了5.8 分。Kindle2 排在第二,得分为5.7 分,传统纸质书则为5.6 分。